# Prof. C.P. Caulfield

## Professor, BPI and DAMTP

### Fellow of Churchill College

Dr Colm-cille P. Caulfield is interested in fluid flows where density

variations play a critical dynamical role. He strives to use a combination

of mathematical modelling, numerical simulation and laboratory experimentation

to understand and quantify fundamental physical processes, particularly when

they are transient in nature.

## Biography

- 1992-1994: Post-doctoral research fellow for the Japan-Canada Project in Weather and Climate of the Arctic, Department of Physics, University of Toronto
- 1992-1993: Senior Visitor, Department of Engineering Science, Hokkaido University
- 1995-1999: Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol
- 1999-2001: Assistant Professor of Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Irwin and Joan Jacobs School of Engineering, University of California, San Diego
- 2001-2005: Associate Professor (with tenure) of Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Irwin and Joan Jacobs School of Engineering, University of California, San Diego
- 2004-2005: Visiting Researcher (Poste Rouge au CNRS) in the Hydrodynamics Laboratory, (LaDyHX) Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS
- 2005-: University Lecturer in Fluid Flow, BPI and the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge
- 2005-: Fellow and College Lecturer in Mathematics, Churchill College, University of Cambridge

### Qualifications

- 1987 BSc Mathematics, University of Ulster at Coleraine
- 1991 PhD DAMTP, Cambridge

## Research

- stratified flows
- turbulent mixing processes
- flow instability and transition
- turbulent plumes
- building ventilation
- bubble dynamics and interaction with turbulence

## Publications

- Parker, J. P., Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, R. R. (2021) The effects of Prandtl number on the nonlinear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in two dimensions. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 915: MAR 11 2021
- Smith, Katherine M., Caulfield, C. P. and Taylor, J. R. (2021) Turbulence in forced stratified shear flows. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 910: JAN 18 2021
- Dauxois, T., Peacock, T., Bauer, P., Caulfield, C. P., Cenedese, C., Gorle, C., Haller, G., Ivey, G. N., Linden, P. F., Meiburg, E., Pinardi, N., Vriend, N. M. and Woods, A. W. (2021) Confronting Grand Challenges in environmental fluid mechanics. PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS 6: FEB 8 2021
- Caulfield, C. P. (2021) Layering, Instabilities, and Mixing in Turbulent Stratified Flows. ANNUAL REVIEW OF FLUID MECHANICS, VOL 53 53: 113-145 2021
- Howland, Christopher J., Taylor, John R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2021) Quantifying mixing and available potential energy in vertically periodic simulations of stratified flows. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 914: MAR 5 2021
- Dickinson, Alex, White, N. J. and Caulfield, C. P. (2020) Time-Lapse Acoustic Imaging of Mesoscale and Fine-Scale Variability within the Faroe-Shetland Channel. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 125: AUG 2020
- Bacik, Karol A., Lovett, Sean, Caulfield, Colm-cille P. and Vriend, Nathalie M. (2020) Wake Induced Long Range Repulsion of Aqueous Dunes. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 124: FEB 4 2020
- Parker, J. P., Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, R. R. (2020) The viscous Holmboe instability for smooth shear and density profiles. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 896: AUG 10 2020
- Howland, Christopher J., Taylor, John R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2020) Mixing in forced stratified turbulence and its dependence on large-scale forcing. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 898: SEP 10 2020
- Cope, Laura, Garaud, P. and Caulfield, C. P. (2020) The dynamics of stratified horizontal shear flows at low Peclet number. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 903: NOV 25 2020
- Nabi, S., Grover, P. and Caulfield, C. P. (2019) Nonlinear optimal control strategies for buoyancy-driven flows in the built environment. COMPUTERS & FLUIDS 194: NOV 15 2019
- Parker, J. P., Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, R. R. (2019) Kelvin-Helmholtz billows above Richardson number 1/4. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 879: NOV 25 2019
- Taylor, J. R., Kops, S. M. de Bruyn, Caulfield, C. P. and Linden, P. F. (2019) Testing the Assumptions Underlying Ocean Mixing Methodologies Using Direct Numerical Simulations. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 49: 2761-2779 NOV 2019
- van Reeuwijk, Maarten, Holzner, Markus and Caulfield, C. P. (2019) Mixing and entrainment are suppressed in inclined gravity currents. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 873: 786-815 AUG 25 2019
- Lucas, Dan, Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, Rich R. (2019) Layer formation and relaminarisation in plane Couette flow with spanwise stratification. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 868: 97-118 JUN 10 2019
- Portwood, G. D., Kops, S. M. de Bruyn and Caulfield, C. P. (2019) Asymptotic Dynamics of High Dynamic Range Stratified Turbulence. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 122: MAY 17 2019
- Salehipour, Hesam, Peltier, W. R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2018) Self-organized criticality of turbulence in strongly stratified mixing layers. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 856: 228-256 OCT 2 2018
- Bonnebaigt, Rachael, Caulfield, C. P. and Linden, P. F. (2018) Detrainment of plumes from vertically distributed sources. ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS 18: 3-25 FEB 2018
- Lefauve, Adrien, Partridge, J. L., Zhou, Qi, Dalziel, S. B., Caulfield, C. P. and Linden, P. F. (2018) The structure and origin of confined Holmboe waves. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 848: 508-544 JUN 5 2018
- Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo and Caulfield, Colm-cille P. (2018) Entrainment model for fully-developed wind farms: Effects of atmospheric stability and an ideal limit for wind farm performance. PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS 3: SEP 10 2018
- Gunn, K. L., White, N. J., Larter, R. D. and Caulfield, C. P. (2018) Calibrated Seismic Imaging of Eddy-Dominated Warm-Water Transport Across the Bellingshausen Sea, Southern Ocean. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 123: 3072-3099 APR 2018
- Marcotte, F. and Caulfield, C. P. (2018) Optimal mixing in two-dimensional stratified plane Poiseuille flow at finite Peclet and Richardson numbers. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 853: 359-385 AUG 23 2018
- Deng, Jian and Caulfield, C. P. (2018) Horizontal locomotion of a vertically flapping oblate spheroid. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 840: 688-708 APR 10 2018
- Howland, C. J., Taylor, J. R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2018) Testing linear marginal stability in stratified shear layers. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 839: MAR 25 2018
- Vermach, L. and Caulfield, C. P. (2018) Optimal mixing in three-dimensional plane Poiseuille flow at high Peclet number. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 850: 875-923 JUL 10 2018
- Mashayek, A., Salehipour, H., Bouffard, D., Caulfield, C. P., Ferrari, R., Nikurashin, M., Peltier, W. R. and Smyth, W. D. (2017) Efficiency of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean circulation. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 44: 6296-6306 JUN 28 2017
- Kaminski, A. K., Caulfield, C. P. and Taylor, J. R. (2017) Nonlinear evolution of linear optimal perturbations of strongly stratified shear layers. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 825: 213-244 AUG 25 2017
- Nabi, S., Grover, P. and Caulfield, C. P. (2017) Adjoint-based optimization of displacement ventilation flow. BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT 124: 342-356 NOV 1 2017
- Zhou, Qi, Taylor, John R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2017) Self-similar mixing in stratified plane Couette flow for varying Prandtl number. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 820: 86-120 JUN 10 2017
- Eaves, T. S. and Caulfield, C. P. (2017) Multiple instability of layered stratified plane Couette flow. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 813: 250-278 FEB 25 2017
- Dickinson, Alex, White, N. J. and Caulfield, C. P. (2017) Spatial Variation of Diapycnal Diffusivity Estimated From Seismic Imaging of Internal Wave Field, Gulf of Mexico. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 122: 9827-9854 DEC 2017
- Lucas, Dan, Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, Rich R. (2017) Layer formation in horizontally forced stratified turbulence:connecting exact coherent structures to linear instabilities. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 832: 409-437 DEC 10 2017
- Rao, P., Caulfield, C. P. and Gibbon, J. D. (2017) Nonlinear effects in buoyancy-driven variable-density turbulence. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 810: 362-377 JAN 10 2017
- Mashayek, A., Caulfield, C. P. and Peltier, W. R. (2017) Role of overturns in optimal mixing instratified mixing layers. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 826: 522-552 SEP 10 2017
- Deng, Jian, Xue, Jingyu, Mao, Xuerui and Caulfield, C. P. (2017) Coherent structures in interacting vortex rings. PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS 2: FEB 21 2017
- Sutherland, Bruce R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2017) Optimal perturbation growth in axisymmetric intrusions. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 811: JAN 25 2017
- Lucas, Dan and Caulfield, C. P. (2017) Irreversible mixing by unstable periodic orbits in buoyancy dominated stratified turbulence. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 832: DEC 10 2017
- Zhou, Qi, Taylor, J. R., Caulfield, C. P. and Linden, P. F. (2017) Diapycnal mixing in layered stratified plane Couette flow quantified in a tracer-based coordinate. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 823: 198-229 JUL 25 2017
- Deng, Jian and Caulfield, C. P. (2016) Dependence on aspect ratio of symmetry breaking for oscillating foils: implications for flapping flight. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 787: 16-49 JAN 2016
- Taylor, J. R., Deusebio, E., Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, R. R. (2016) A new method for isolating turbulent states in transitional stratified plane Couette flow. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 808: DEC 2016
- Salehipour, Hesam, Caulfield, C. P. and Peltier, W. R. (2016) Turbulent mixing due to the Holmboe wave instability at high Reynolds number. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 803: 591-621 SEP 25 2016
- Falder, Matthew, White, N. J. and Caulfield, C. P. (2016) Seismic Imaging of Rapid Onset of Stratified Turbulence in the South Atlantic Ocean*. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 46: 1023-1044 APR 2016
- Deng, Jian, Teng, Lubao, Caulfield, C. P. and Mao, Xuerui (2016) Instabilities of interacting vortex rings generated by an oscillating disk. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 94: SEP 14 2016
- Portwood, G. D., Kops, S. M. de Bruyn, Taylor, J. R., Salehipour, H. and Caulfield, C. P. (2016) Robust identification of dynamically distinct regions in stratified turbulence. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 807: NOV 2016
- Evans, A. J., Caulfield, C. P. and Woods, Andrew W. (2015) Linear estimation of flux sensitivity to uncertainty in porous media. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 768: APR 2015
- Lin, Tiras Y., Caulfield, C. P. and Woods, Andrew W. (2015) Buoyancy-induced turbulent mixing in a narrow tilted tank. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 773: 267-297 JUN 2015
- Deusebio, Enrico, Caulfield, C. P. and Taylor, J. R. (2015) The intermittency boundary in stratified plane Couette flow. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 781: 298-329 OCT 2015
- Deng, Jian and Caulfield, C. P. (2015) Three-dimensional transition after wake deflection behind a flapping foil. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 91: APR 24 2015
- Manucharyan, G. E. and Caulfield, C. P. (2015) Entrainment and mixed layer dynamics of a surface-stress-driven stratified fluid. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 765: 653-667 FEB 2015
- Eaves, T. S. and Caulfield, C. P. (2015) Disruption of SSP/VWI states by a stable stratification. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 784: 548-564 DEC 2015
- Deng, Jian, Caulfield, C. P. and Shao, Xueming (2014) Effect of aspect ratio on the energy extraction efficiency of three-dimensional flapping foils. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 26: APR 2014
- Sauret, A., Balmforth, N. J., Caulfield, C. P. and McElwaine, J. N. (2014) Bulldozing of granular material. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 748: 143-174 JUN 2014
- van Sommeren, Daan D. J. A., Caulfield, C. P. and Woods, Andrew W. (2014) Spatially varying mixing of a passive scalar in a buoyancy-driven turbulent flow. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 742: 701-719 MAR 2014
- Kaminski, A. K., Caulfield, C. P. and Taylor, J. R. (2014) Transient growth in strongly stratified shear layers. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 758: NOV 2014
- Foures, D. P. G., Caulfield, C. P. and Schmid, P. J. (2014) Optimal mixing in two-dimensional plane Poiseuille flow at finite Peclet number. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 748: 241-277 JUN 2014
- Rabin, S. M. E., Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, R. R. (2014) Designing a more nonlinearly stable laminar flow via boundary manipulation. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 738: JAN 2014
- Foures, D. P. G., Caulfield, C. P. and Schmid, P. J. (2013) Localization of flow structures using infinity-norm optimization. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 729: 672-701 AUG 2013
- Anjum, Hafiz J., Mcelwaine, Jim N. and Caulfield, Colm-Cille P. (2013) The instantaneous Froude number and depth of unsteady gravity currents. JOURNAL OF HYDRAULIC RESEARCH 51: 432-445 AUG 1 2013
- van Sommeren, Daan D. J. A., Caulfield, C. P. and Woods, Andrew W. (2013) Advection and buoyancy-induced turbulent mixing in a narrow vertical tank. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 724: 450-479 JUN 2013
- Mashayek, A., Caulfield, C. P. and Peltier, W. R. (2013) Time-dependent, non-monotonic mixing in stratified turbulent shear flows: implications for oceanographic estimates of buoyancy flux. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 736: 570-593 DEC 2013
- Arratia, C., Caulfield, C. P. and Chomaz, J. -M. (2013) Transient perturbation growth in time-dependent mixing layers. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 717: 90-133 FEB 2013
- Oglethorpe, R. L. F., Caulfield, C. P. and Woods, Andrew W. (2013) Spontaneous layering in stratified turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 721: APR 2013
- Rabin, S. M. E., Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, R. R. (2012) Triggering turbulence efficiently in plane Couette flow. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 712: 244-272 DEC 10 2012
- Landel, Julien R., Caulfield, C. P. and Woods, Andrew W. (2012) Meandering due to large eddies and the statistically self-similar dynamics of quasi-two-dimensional jets. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 692: 347-368 FEB 10 2012
- Landel, Julien R., Caulfield, C. P. and Woods, Andrew W. (2012) Streamwise dispersion and mixing in quasi-two-dimensional steady turbulent jets. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 711: 212-258 NOV 25 2012
- Foures, D. P. G., Caulfield, C. P. and Schmid, P. J. (2012) Variational framework for flow optimization using seminorm constraints. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86: AUG 9 2012
- Shravat, A., Cenedese, C. and Caulfield, C. P. (2012) Entrainment and mixing dynamics of surface-stress-driven stratified flow in a cylinder. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 691: 498-517 JAN 25 2012
- Sheen, K. L., White, N. J., Caulfield, C. P. and Hobbs, R. W. (2012) Seismic imaging of a large horizontal vortex at abyssal depths beneath the Sub-Antarctic Front. NATURE GEOSCIENCE 5: 542-546 AUG 2012
- van Sommeren, Daan D. J. A., Caulfield, C. P. and Woods, Andrew W. (2012) Turbulent buoyant convection from a maintained source of buoyancy in a narrow vertical tank. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 701: 278-303 JUN 25 2012
- Balmforth, N. J., Roy, A. and Caulfield, C. P. (2012) Dynamics of vorticity defects in stratified shear flow. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 694: 292-331 MAR 10 2012
- Dalziel, Stuart B., Patterson, Michael D., Caulfield, C. P. and Le Brun, Stephane (2011) The structure of low-Froude-number lee waves over an isolated obstacle. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 689: 3-31 DEC 2011
- Sheen, Katy L., White, Nicky, Caulfield, C. P. and Hobbs, Richard W. (2011) Estimating Geostrophic Shear from Seismic Images of Oceanic Structure. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY 28: 1149-1154 SEP 2011
- Coomaraswamy, I. A. and Caulfield, C. P. (2011) Time-dependent ventilation flows driven by opposing wind and buoyancy. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 672: 33-59 APR 2011
- Yamamoto, H., Cenedese, C. and Caulfield, C. P. (2011) Laboratory experiments on two coalescing axisymmetric turbulent plumes in a rotating fluid. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 23: MAY 2011
- Lombardi, M., Caulfield, C. P., Cossu, C., Pesci, A. I. and Goldstein, R. E. (2011) Growth and instability of a laminar plume in a strongly stratified environment. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 671: 184-206 MAR 2011
- Woods, Andrew W., Caulfield, C. P., Landel, J. R. and Kuesters, A. (2010) Non-invasive turbulent mixing across a density interface in a turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 663: 347-357 NOV 2010
- Wells, Mathew, Cenedese, Claudia and Caulfield, C. P. (2010) The Relationship between Flux Coefficient and Entrainment Ratio in Density Currents. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 40: 2713-2727 DEC 2010
- Scase, M. M., Aspden, A. J. and Caulfield, C. P. (2009) The effect of sudden source buoyancy flux increases on turbulent plumes. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 635: 137-169 SEP 25 2009
- Flynn, M. R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2009) Effect of volumetric heat sources on hysteresis phenomena in natural and mixed-mode ventilation. BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT 44: 216-226 JAN 2009
- Tang, W., Caulfield, C. P. and Kerswell, R. R. (2009) A prediction for the optimal stratification for turbulent mixing. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 634: 487-497 SEP 10 2009
- Bower, D. J., Caulfield, C. P., Fitzgerald, S. D. and Woods, A. W. (2008) Transient ventilation dynamics following a change in strength of a point source of heat. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 614: 15-37 NOV 10 2008
- Landel, J. R., Cossu, C. and Caulfield, C. P. (2008) Spherical cap bubbles with a toroidal bubbly wake. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 20: DEC 2008
- Dalziel, Stuart B., Patterson, Michael D., Caulfield, C. P. and Coomaraswamy, Imran A. (2008) Mixing efficiency in high-aspect-ratio Rayleigh-Taylor experiments. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 20: JUN 2008
- Scase, M. M., Caulfield, C. P. and Dalziel, S. B. (2008) Temporal variation of non-ideal plumes with sudden reductions in buoyancy flux. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 600: 181-199 APR 10 2008
- Bolster, Diogo and Caulfield, C. P. (2008) Transients in natural ventilation - A time-periodically varying source. BUILDING SERVICES ENGINEERING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY 29: 119-135 2008
- Scase, M. M., Caulfield, C. P., Linden, P. F. and Dalziel, S. B. (2007) Local implications for self-similar turbulent plume models. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 575: 257-265 MAR 25 2007
- Scase, M. M., Caulfield, C. P. and Dalziel, S. B. (2006) Boussinesq plumes and jets with decreasing source strengths in stratified environments. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 563: 463-472 SEP 25 2006
- Flynn, M. R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2006) Natural ventilation in interconnected chambers. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 564: 139-158 OCT 10 2006
- Patterson, M. D., Caulfield, C. P., McElwaine, J. N. and Dalziel, S. B. (2006) Time-dependent mixing in stratified Kelvin-Helmholtz billows: Experimental observations. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 33: AUG 15 2006
- Scase, M. M., Caulfield, C. P., Dalziel, S. B. and Hunt, J. C. R. (2006) Time-dependent plumes and jets with decreasing source strengths. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 563: 443-461 SEP 25 2006
- Tang, W, Caulfield, CP and Young, WR (2005) Bounds on dissipation in stress-driven flow in a rotating frame. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 540: 373-391 OCT 10 2005
- Woods, AW, Caulfield, CP and Phillips, JC (2003) Blocked natural ventilation: the effect of a source mass flux. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 495: 119-133 NOV 25 2003
- Caulfield, CP and Woods, AW (2002) The mixing in a room by a localized finite-mass-flux source of buoyancy. JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 471: 33-50 NOV 25 2002